Sakander Mirza, born on November 13, 1899, in Murshidabad, Bengal (now in India), was a military officer and politician who served as the first President of Pakistan. Here is a brief biography of Iskander Mirza:
Early Life and Military Career:
- Iskander Mirza was born into an aristocratic family. His father, General Zahirudin Ahmed, was a military officer in the British Indian Army.
- Mirza received his early education in Murshidabad and later attended the Royal Military College in Sandhurst, England, where he trained as an army officer.
- After completing his military training, Mirza joined the British Indian Army and served in various positions, including participating in World War II.
- Following the partition of India in 1947 and the creation of Pakistan, Mirza transitioned to a political career. He joined the civil service and held several administrative positions.
- In 1954, Mirza was appointed as the Governor of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), where he served until 1955.
- Mirza was involved in the drafting of Pakistan’s first constitution and played a significant role in shaping the country’s political structure.
- In 1956, Pakistan adopted its first republican constitution, and Mirza was elected as the country’s first President. He assumed office on March 23, 1956.
- As President, Mirza faced numerous challenges, including political instability, regional tensions, and struggles for power between different factions.
- In 1958, Pakistan faced a severe political crisis, and Mirza declared martial law, effectively taking control of the government. However, his rule was short-lived.
Overthrow and Later Years:
- In October 1958, General Ayub Khan staged a military coup and ousted Mirza from power. Ayub Khan assumed the presidency, and Mirza was put under house arrest.
- After his removal from power, Mirza spent several years in exile in London, England.
- Mirza attempted to return to Pakistan and re-enter politics but was arrested upon his arrival in 1968.
- He lived the rest of his life in Pakistan in a state of seclusion and passed away on November 12, 1969, in London, England.
Iskander Mirza’s presidency marked an important phase in Pakistan’s history as the country transitioned to a republic. Despite his aspirations for democratic governance, his presidency was cut short by a military coup. His time in office was characterized by political challenges and regional tensions that would shape Pakistan’s subsequent political landscape.