Khawaja Nazimuddin: From Aristocratic Roots to Political Leadership in Bengal and Pakistan

Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin KCIE (19 July 1894 – 22 October 1964) was a Pakistani politician and statesman who served as the second governor-general of Pakistan from 1948 to 1951 and later as the second prime minister of Pakistan from 1951 to 1953. He was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan and the first Bengali to have governed Pakistan. Presented by ZRMNews.

Family Background, Formative Years, and Education:

Born into a rich Bengali Muslim own family of the Nawabs of Dhaka on 19 July 1894 in the course of the British Raj, he become the son of Khawaja Nizamuddin and the paternal grandson of Khwaja Fakhruddin. The own familyin the beginning from Kashmir, had lengthy been hooked up in Dhaka. His maternal grandfather become Nawab Bahadur Sir Khwaja Ahsanullah, and his mother, Nawabzadi Bilqis Banu, became famend in her very own right. Nazimuddin had a younger brother, Khwaja Shahabuddin, who later performed a substantial position in countrywide politics. Their circle of relatives spoke Persian, Urdu, and Bengali. moreover, they were first cousins of Nawab Khwaja Habibullah, the son of Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur, who performed a essential role inside the foundation of the Muslim League in 1906.

Nazimuddin acquired his early schooling at the Dunstable Grammar school in England. After finishing his matriculation, he lower back to British India and enrolled at the MAO university of the Aligarh Muslim university (AMU) in Uttar Pradesh, India. He graduated with a bachelor’s diploma in sociology from AMU and then lower back to England for further studiesin the course of his time at AMU, Nazimuddin outstanding himself as an avid tennis player, representing the university in collegiate video games.

In the end, Nazimuddin pursued better schooling at Trinity hall, Cambridge universitywhere he earned his grasp‘s degree in English. His training in England also led him to qualify as a Barrister-at-law. He became knighted in 1934. In popularity of his academic achievements, he became awarded an honorary physician of legal guidelines diploma by way of the vice-chancellor of Dhaka university, Dr. Mahmud Hasan, in 1947–forty nine.

Political profession, Public provider, and Independence movement

Nazimuddin’s go back to India from England marked his entry into civil and public affairs, in which he actively engaged in Bengali politics along his brother Khawaja Shahbuddin. each brothers joined the Muslim League, and Nazimuddin efficaciously ran for the municipality election, serving as the Chairman of Dhaka Municipality from 1922 to 1929. at some stage in this era, he also held the position of training Minister of Bengal until 1934. in the end, he changed into appointed to the Viceroy’s govt Council from 1934 to 1937.In this function, he notably championed the obligatory primary training invoice, addressing educational disparities between Hindus and Muslims. As Minister for Agriculture in 1935, he delivered the Agriculture debtors invoice and the Bengal Rural improvement invoicealleviating the monetary burdens on negative Muslim cultivators imposed via Hindu moneylenders.

Taking part in the local elections of 1937 at the Muslim League’s platform, Nazimuddin accepted defeat in choose of Fazlul Haq of Krishak Praja element (KPP), who became the top Minister of Bengal. Nazimuddin assumed a function as a member of the legislative meeting.

In a Fortnightly file to the Viceroy in February 1947, then-Governor of Punjab Sir Evan Jenkins stated a conversation with Khwaja Nazimuddin concerning the Pakistan challenge. Nazimuddin candidly admitted that he did now not recognize what Pakistan supposed, emphasizing the shortage of readability among senior Muslim League leaders approximately the simple functions of the country they have been advocating for.

Home Minister, high Minister of Bengal, and leader Minister of East Bengal

Upon the formation of a coalition authorities between the Muslim League and the Krishak Praja birthday celebration, Nazimuddin have become the house Minister beneath Haq’s premiership, serving till 1943. Because of his conservative elite function, he developed a near association with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the President of the Muslim League. Jinnah appointed him as a member of the government committee, allowing him to promote the Muslim League’s agenda efficiently, gaining popularity in East Bengal.

In 1940–forty one, Nazimuddin broke faraway from the coalition led by way of most efficient Fazlul Haq and assumed the function of the leader of the competition. He campaigned towards Haq’s premiership, specializing in Bengali nationalism issues.In 1943, Nazimuddin took over the government from top of the line Haq, who changed into disregarded by using Governor John Herbert amid controversies surrounding his political campaigns. at some point of this period, Nazimuddin played a essential position in advocating for the separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan.  In 1945, while puzzled about the “Pakistan question” by means of British Governor Richard Casey, he displayed little hobby and reportedly said that he did now not know what Pakistan supposed, and nobody inside the Muslim League knew.

Nazimuddin’s premiership lasted till 1945 whilst a motion of no self assurance resulted in his defeat inside the meeting through one hundred sixty to ninety seven votes, efficiently ending his time period.[30]: 106  He handed over the workplace to Nausher Ali, an Indian nationalist Muslim and prominent member of the Congress birthday party who served because the speaker of the assemblybut, the management changed into taken over by means of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.

From 1945 to 1947, Nazimuddin persevered to serve as the Chairman of the Muslim League in Bengal, fervently assisting the political cause for Pakistan in opposition to the Congress birthday party. During this time, he in brief clashed with top of the line Suhrawardy, strongly opposing the United Bengal motion and main a strong parliamentary competition towards Suhrawardy’s administration in April 1947. The war among the two guys basically stemmed from Suhrawardy representing the center class while Nazimuddin represented nobility in the assembly.

In 1947, he contested the celebration elections in the Muslim League in opposition to Suhrawardy’s platform, securing his nomination as the party chairman for the Muslim League’s East Bengal bankruptcy. Forty nine–50  His fulfillment in the birthday party election ultimately brought about his appointment as the first leader Minister of East Bengal after the Partition of India in 1947. He efficaciously won manipulate of the Muslim League inside the province.

Because the chief Minister, he led the movement of confidence that in the end voted in choose of becoming a member of the Federation of Pakistan and reorganized the government of East Pakistan by using appointing conservative contributors to his management.

Later Years and Passing:

Mausoleum of Three Leaders in Dhaka Even following his removal from office, he and his family continued their involvement in parliamentary politics. His nephew, Khwaja Wasiuddin, a military general who served as GOC-in-C II Corps, later repatriated to Bangladesh in 1974.

His younger brother, Shahabuddin, remained actively engaged in politics and eventually assumed the role of Information Minister in President Ayub Khan’s administration.

Sir Khawaja passed away in 1964 at the age of 70. He was laid to rest in the Mausoleum of Three Leaders in his hometown of Dhaka.

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